"Ujuzi wa historia na maendeleo ya teknolojia inaweza kuchangia uelewa mzuri wa mahitaji ya kimsingi ya binadamu na kuhamasisha maendeleo mapya katika uwanja huo."

Chanzo: Yannopoulos et al (2017), "Historia ya teknolojia ya usafi na usafi katika ulimwengu wa Hellenic", Jarida la Maji, Usafi wa Mazingira na Usafi wa Maendeleo, v07.2.

Vyoo
katika Historia

Vyoo sio jambo geni kwa ulimwengu, lakini safari yao sio rahisi kila wakati, pia.

 

Chunguza ratiba ya nyakati ili kuona jinsi wakati mwingine wanadamu huenda mbele, na kisha kurudi nyuma, na kisha kusonga mbele tena.

 

Kulia kwako ni ratiba ya nyakati na hatua muhimu ambazo zimesababisha ulimwengu katika hali yake ya choo ya sasa. Nenda nyuma kupitia wakati ili upate maelezo zaidi.

 
 

Hadithi

Kwa muda wote kumekuwa na hadithi kadhaa na tamaduni kadhaa karibu na kazi ya choo. Kumekuwa na miungu, miungu wa kike, mashetani, vizuka, na takwimu zingine za kichawi zinazohusiana na utamaduni wa choo.

Chini ni mifano kadhaa ya viumbe hawa wa hadithi. Bonyeza kupata maelezo zaidi.

Šulak
Šulak

Babylonian toilet demon

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Belphegor
Belphegor

Judeo-Christian demon who sits on a toilet throne

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Jinn
Jinn

Islamic demon that often inhabits dirty toilets

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Zigu
Zigu

Chinese toilet goddess

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Akaname
Akaname

Japanese demon of bathroom filth

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Cheuksin
Cheuksin

Korean toilet goddess

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Kawaya No-Kami
Kawaya No-Kami

Japanese toilet god

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Cloacina
Cloacina

Ancient Roman goddess of the sewer

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Stercutius
Stercutius

Ancient Roman god of dung

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The Current Sanitation Situation

How many people in the world need access to safe water and adequate sanitation?


According to the JMP in 2017, about 30% of people in the world do not use basic, safely-managed water services; 60% of people in the world do not use basic, safely-managed sanitation services. This means that water and sanitation services available to an overwhelming number of people in the world are not easily accessible or may be broken or poorly maintained.


Source: JMP 2017




Where in the world is there the most need right now?


According to the JMP, the areas with the lowest levels of access to water and sanitation are in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Pacific.


Source: JMP 2017




Why don't people have access to toilets?


• They don't have enough room to accommodate both their homes and a toilet

• They live somewhere – like a mountain top, village or lake – where it is difficult to build a toilet

• The communities have certain taboos about owning or using a toilet

• Their beliefs and customs dictate where and how to go to the bathroom

• They don't have enough money to build and maintain a toilet

• There are no companies in the area who produce and sell toilets




Why don't people have access to safe drinking water?


• The area does not have enough fresh drinking water to accommodate the number of people living there

• Naturally-occurring water sources are contaminated with toxins like arsenic and E. coli

• Without access to toilets, people are forced to go outside. This usually means they are going to the bathroom in the water sources (lakes, rivers) and therefore contaminating them, or they are going in an area that will eventually get washed into the waterways

• There is a drought preventing water sources from being rejuvenated quickly enough for people to use

• The owner of the water source is not willing to share with those who need it

• The water is managed by an organization that charges unaffordable rates

• The water source is not easily accessible – it’s often too far away or across dangerous terrain




How long did it take for the developed world to get access to these things?


Many, many years...but it only took about a century once it became clear that having toilets prevents diseases from spreading. Check out the Toilet Timeline to learn more.




What are the biggest challenges for getting people safe drinking water and toilets?


Population growth is one of the biggest challenges for improving access all over the world. Because, despite efforts to improve access to sanitation, the population is growing so fast, It is hard to keep up.

Another challenge is climate change. With climate patterns changing and certain areas having increased cases of drought or rain, people are struggling to get access to clean water and working sanitation systems. Rain can flood toilets and contaminate water. Droughts reduce the water levels and make it hard to clean oneself after going to the bathroom.

Lack of resources is another challenge. Those working in water and sanitation don't have the funds to get people access to water and toilets quickly or easily.

Source: USA CDC

Source: National Geographic

Source: WaterAid Blog

Source: GLAAS 2017 Report





Kona ya mwiko

Mwiko ni nini? Katika FLUSH, "mwiko" inamaanisha kitu ambacho hakikubaliki kijamii - iwe kwa vitendo au kwa kuzungumzia. Mambo ya mwiko sio lazima yatekelezwe na sheria.

 

Kuna sababu tofauti kwa nini tamaduni zinasita kubadilisha tabia na tabia zao na maji na usafi wa mazingira. Baadhi yao ni ya kipekee.

 

Hapa chini kuna ramani iliyo na miiko tofauti ambayo inapatikana katika maeneo tofauti ya ulimwengu. Bonyeza kwa hoja ili ujifunze zaidi.

 

Sekta ya WASH Inashindwa

Kwa miaka mingi, sekta ya WASH inakabiliwa na changamoto kadhaa katika kuwafanya watu kupata maji safi ya kunywa na vyoo salama. Katika FLUSH, tumeondoa hitilafu kadhaa muhimu na maoni potofu ambayo tumeshuhudia katika sekta ambayo yanahitaji kubadilika.

"Ikiwa wataijenga, watakuja"

Kujenga vyoo kwa watu na kisha kuondoka katika eneo imekuwa njia ya kawaida kihistoria watu katika ulimwengu wa maji na usafi wa mazingira wamejaribu kuboresha upatikanaji wa usafi wa mazingira.

Soma zaidi: Mwiko wa Mwisho: (na Black & Fawcett)

Soma zaidi: Vyoo na Mabomba hayatoshi (na Casey & Crichton-Smith)

"Wacha tuwe na hafla ya mafunzo ya marathon"

Kufundisha watu wenye ujuzi wa kusaidia wengine kupata maji safi na usafi wa mazingira kunachukua muda. Vipindi vingi vya mafunzo vimesongamana kwa siku moja au mbili kwa siku 6-8. Kama matokeo, watu hawakumbuki yale waliyofundishwa na hawajiamini katika kutumia ujuzi waliojifunza tu.

Soma zaidi: Ushirikiano wa NGO na Ukuzaji wa Uwezo katika Sekta ya WASH (na Willetts et al)

Soma zaidi: Kujenga Uwezo katika Serikali za Mitaa Vijijini za Kamboja kwa Soko la Usafi (na Worsham et al)

"Je! Hakuna risasi ya fedha ..."

Kile kinachoweza kuwa suluhisho la mafanikio kwa jamii moja, huenda sio lazima ifanyie kazi nyingine. Sehemu tofauti zinahitaji miundo tofauti ya choo na tofauti za kitamaduni lazima zihesabiwe ili mfumo ustawi.


Soma zaidi: Kuunda tena risasi ya fedha (na Smits katika IRC WASH)

"Hakika, tunaweza kurekebisha shida hii kwa miaka 3 .."

Unapofikiria wakati muhimu unaohitajika kuanzisha na kusambaratisha mradi, kuna wakati mdogo sana wa kuchunguza, kuchambua na kutekeleza yote ambayo ni muhimu kuhakikisha mradi unafanikiwa. Kwa kuongezea, kutarajia kubadilisha mila ambayo imekuwepo kwa vizazi kwa miaka michache tu inaweza kuwa isiyo ya kweli. Mara nyingi, utelezi hutokea na licha ya juhudi nzuri za wale wanaohusika, watu hurudi kwenye njia zao za zamani.

Soma zaidi: Kuelewa utelezi: njia 8 za kwenda mbele (WSSCC)

"Wacha tuzungumze na viongozi wa kiume wa jamii hii kwa suluhisho ..."

Kwa kweli, kuongea na viongozi juu ya mada nyeti kama vyoo ni muhimu, lakini mara nyingi watu bora kuzungumza nao ndio wanaopoteza zaidi bila kupata maji safi na vyoo - wanawake, walemavu, wazee, na wanyonge. Kujumuisha vikundi hivi katika upangaji wa mradi ni muhimu kuhakikisha mafanikio yake.

Soma zaidi: Kutambua Ufikiaji na Matumizi ya Usafi wa Mazingira wakati wowote, kwa kila mtu na kila mahali (na SNV)

Soma zaidi: Usawa wa kijinsia na Ujumuishaji wa Ulemavu ndani ya WASH (na WaterAid)

Kumbuka: Shukrani kwa Mfuko wa CS WASH kwa rasilimali za kukaribisha.

Mipango ya Kuvutia

Utastaajabishwa na jinsi mipango mingine ambayo watu wengine wamechukua (na mafanikio kadhaa) kuboresha hali ya maji, usafi wa mazingira, na usafi. Hapa chini kuna ramani ya baadhi ya mipango ambayo imejaribiwa, pamoja na miaka, maelezo, na viungo mara nyingi. Bonyeza kwa hoja ili ujifunze zaidi.